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List of LaTeX symbols

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LaTeX symbols have either names (denoted by backslash) or special characters. They are organized into seven classes based on their role in a mathematical expression. This is not a comprehensive list. Refer to the external references at the end of this article for more information.

Class 0 (Ord) symbols: Simple / ordinary ("noun")Edit

Latin letters and Arabic numeralsEdit

Letters are rendered in italic font; numbers are upright / roman. \imath and \jmath make "dotless" i and j, which are useful in conjunction with hats and accents.

LaTeX markup... ...results in:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
\imath \quad \jmath \quad \hat{\jmath} \imath        \quad   \jmath \quad \hat{\jmath}

Greek lettersEdit

Lower case Greek letters are rendered in italic font; upper case Greek letters are rendered in upright/Roman.

Upper case Greek letters

Lower case Greek letters

Misc Greek letters

\Gamma  \Gamma
\Delta  \Delta
\Lambda  \Lambda
\Phi  \Phi
\Pi  \Pi
\Psi  \Psi
\Sigma  \Sigma
\Theta  \Theta

\Upsilon  \Upsilon
\Xi  \Xi
\Omega  \Omega

\alpha  \alpha
\beta  \beta
\gamma  \gamma
\delta  \delta
\epsilon  \epsilon
\zeta  \zeta
\eta  \eta
\theta  \theta

\iota  \iota
\kappa  \kappa
\lambda  \lambda
\mu  \mu
\nu  \nu
\xi  \xi
\pi  \pi
\rho  \rho

\sigma  \sigma
\tau  \tau
\upsilon  \upsilon
\phi  \phi
\chi  \chi
\psi  \psi
\omega  \omega

\digamma  \digamma
\varepsilon  \varepsilon
\varkappa  \varkappa
\varphi  \varphi
\varpi  \varpi
\varrho  \varrho
\varsigma  \varsigma
\vartheta  \vartheta

Other alphabetic charactersEdit

\aleph  \aleph
\beth  \beth
\daleth  \daleth
\gimel  \gimel

\complement  \complement
\ell  \ell
\eth  \eth
\hbar  \hbar

\hslash  \hslash
\mho  \mho
\partial  \partial
\wp  \wp

\circledS  \circledS
\Bbbk  \Bbbk
\Finv  \Finv

\Game  \Game
\Im  \Im
\Re  \Re

Other simple symbolsEdit

The following characters don't have any spacing associated with them. That is, they are simple symbols, in class 0.

\#  \#
\angle  \angle
\backprime  \backprime
\bigstar  \bigstar
\blacklozenge  \blacklozenge
\blacksquare  \blacksquare
\blacktriangle  \blacktriangle
\blacktriangledown  \blacktriangledown
\bot  \bot

\clubsuit  \clubsuit
\diagdown  \diagdown
\diagup  \diagup
\diamondsuit  \diamondsuit
\emptyset  \emptyset
\exists  \exists
\flat  \flat
\forall  \forall
\heartsuit  \heartsuit

\infty  \infty
\lozenge  \lozenge
\measuredangle  \measuredangle
\nabla  \nabla
\natural  \natural
\neg  \neg or \lnot
\nexists  \nexists
\prime  \prime
\S  \S

\sharp  \sharp
\spadesuit  \spadesuit
\sphericalangle  \sphericalangle
\square p  \square p
\surd  \surd
\top  \top
\triangle  \triangle
\triangledown  \triangledown
\varnothing  \varnothing

There is also a command \& which is not supported by Wikia's LaTeX parser.

Hats, bars, and accentsEdit

Symbols that go above, below, or in the corners of other symbols.

Note 1: dotless i and j (symbols \imath and \jmath) can be used to leave room for whatever hat you want them to wear.

Note 2: \sideset takes two required parameters, left side and right side, and must be followed by a sum class math operator that normally takes subscripts and superscripts below and above the symbol.

\overleftarrow{xxx}  \overleftarrow{xxx}
\overrightarrow{xxx}  \overrightarrow{xxx}
Failed to parse (PNG conversion failed; check for correct installation of latex and dvipng (or dvips + gs + convert)): \overleftrightarrow{xxx}   \overleftrightarrow{xxx}
\xleftarrow[under]{over}  \xleftarrow[under]{over}
\xrightarrow[under]{over}  \xrightarrow[under]{over}

The following commands are not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser:

\dddot \widetilde \underleftarrow \underrightarrow \underleftrightarrow

FontsEdit

Bold face: \boldsymbol and \mathbf make bold face symbols, and \pmb makes very bold face symbols. However, \mathbf cannot be applied to Greek symbols, for instance. The AMS "short guide" (see references) contains a cryptic comment, "generally speaking, it is ill-advised to apply \boldsymbol to more than one symbol at a time." Best not to discover why!

LaTeX markup... ...results in:
A_\infty + \pi A_0 A_\infty + \pi A_0
\mathbf{A}_\mathbf{\infty} \mathbf{+} \mathbf{\pi} \mathbf{A}_\mathbf{0} \mathbf{A}_\mathbf{\infty} \mathbf{+} \mathbf{\pi} \mathbf{A}_\mathbf{0}
\mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{\infty} } \boldsymbol{+}

\boldsymbol{\pi} \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{0} }

\mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{\infty} } \boldsymbol{+} 
\boldsymbol{\pi} \mathbf{A}_{\boldsymbol{0} }
2\alpha x^2yz+5 2\alpha x^2yz+5
\mathbf{2\alpha x^2yz+5} \mathbf{2\alpha x^2yz+5}

The \pmb command is not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser.

Other fonts are...


LaTeX markup... ...results in: ...is used for:
\mathbb{A B C . . . X Y Z} \mathbb{A\, B\, C\, D\, E\, F\, G\, H\, I\, J\, K\, L\, M\,}
                 \mathbb{N\, O\, P\, Q\, R\, S\, T\, U\, V\, W\, X\, Y\, Z\,} Blackboard bold (no lowercase) is used to represent standard sets of numbers, e.g. \mathbb{C} complex numbers, \mathbb{H} quaternions, \mathbb{N} natural numbers, \mathbb{O} octonians, \mathbb{Q} rationals, \mathbb{R} reals, \mathbb{S} sedenions, \mathbb{Z} integers.
\mathcal{A B C . . . M} \mathcal{A\, B\, C\, D\, E\, F\, G\, H\, I\, J\, K\, L\, M\,} Calligraphic letters (no lowercase)
\mathcal{N . . . X Y Z} \mathcal{N\, O\, P\, Q\, R\, S\, T\, U\, V\, W\, X\, Y\, Z\,} Calligraphic letters (no lowercase)
\mathfrak{A B C ... M} \mathfrak{A\, B\, C\, D\, E\, F\, G\, H\, I\, J\, K\, L\, M} Fraktur letters
\mathfrak{N ... X Y Z} \mathfrak{N\, O\, P\, Q\, R\, S\, T\, U\, V\, W\, X\, Y\, Z} Fraktur letters
\mathfrak{a b c ... m} \mathfrak{a\, b\, c\, d\, e\, f\, g\, h\, i\, j\, k\, l\, m} Fraktur letters
\mathfrak{n ... x y z} \mathfrak{n\, o\, p\, q\, r\, s\, t\, u\, v\, w\, x\, y\, z} Fraktur letters
\mathrm{A B C ... M} \mathrm{A\, B\, C\, D\, E\, F\, G\, H\, I\, J\, K\, L\, M} Roman letters
\mathrm{N ... X Y Z} \mathrm{N\, O\, P\, Q\, R\, S\, T\, U\, V\, W\, X\, Y\, Z} Roman letters
\mathrm{a b c ... m} \mathrm{a\, b\, c\, d\, e\, f\, g\, h\, i\, j\, k\, l\, m} Roman letters
\mathrm{n ... x y z} \mathrm{n\, o\, p\, q\, r\, s\, t\, u\, v\, w\, x\, y\, z} Roman letters

SpacesEdit

Main article: Spaces

Simple symbols (class 0) are rendered without any space between them. Operators (class 1) are rendered with spaces. Spacing symbols change the amount of spacing, either by adding more space or taking spaces away. Space is measured in math units, or mu. 18mu equals 1em.

LaTeX markup... ...results in: ...is used for:
a b c d a b c d Simple symbols (class 0) have no spaces around them
\sin b \cos d \sin b \cos d Operators (class 1) have thin spaces around them
a \, b \mspace{3mu} c \thinspace d Failed to parse (unknown function\mspace): a \, b \mspace{3mu} c \thinspace d thin 3mu space
a \: b \mspace{4mu} c \medspace d Failed to parse (lexing error): a \: b \mspace{4mu} c \medspace d medium 4mu space
a \; b \mspace{5mu} c \thickspace d Failed to parse (unknown function\mspace): a \; b \mspace{5mu} c\thickspace d thick 5mu space
a \ b \mspace{6mu} c \ d Failed to parse (unknown function\mspace): a \ b \mspace{6mu} c \ d thicker 6mu space provided by backslash followed by blank
a \quad b \mspace{18mu} c \quad d Failed to parse (unknown function\mspace): a \quad b \mspace{18mu} c \quad d 18mu or 1em space
a \qquad b \mspace{36mu} c \qquad d Failed to parse (unknown function\mspace): a \qquad b \mspace{36mu} c \qquad d 36mu or 2em space
a \! b \mspace{-3mu} c \negthinspace d Failed to parse (unknown function\negthinspace): a \negthinspace b \mspace{-3mu} c \negthinspace d negative thin -3mu space. See \int for a suggested use.
a \negmedspace b \mspace{-4mu} c \negmedspace d Failed to parse (unknown function\negmedspace): a \negmedspace b \mspace{-4mu} c \negmedspace d negative medium -4mu space
a \negthickspace b \mspace{-5mu} c \negthickspace d Failed to parse (unknown function\negthickspace): a \negthickspace b \mspace{-5mu} c \negthickspace d negative thick -5mu space

Spaces of exactly the size of some rendered text can be obtained using the \phantom, command, and its cousins, \hphantom and \vphantom, as follows:

LaTeX markup... ...results in: ...is used for:
& a \ b \\
& \cdot \phantom{\int XXX} \cdot \\
& c \ d
Failed to parse (unknown function\begin): \begin{split} & a \ b \\ & \centerdot \phantom{\int XXX} \centerdot \\ & c \ d \end{split} space as wide
and high as
integral and three X’s
& a \ b \\
& \cdot \hphantom{\int XXX} \cdot \\
& c \ d
Failed to parse (unknown function\begin): \begin{split} & a \ b \\ & \centerdot \hphantom{\int XXX} \centerdot \\ & c \ d \end{split} space as wide as
integral and three X’s;
height 0
& a \ b \\
& \cdot \vphantom{\int XXX} \cdot \\
& c \ d
Failed to parse (unknown function\begin): \begin{split} & a \ b \\ & \centerdot \vphantom{\int XXX} \centerdot \\ & c \ d \end{split} space of width 0,
as high as
integral and three X’s


Class 1 (Op) symbols: prefix operator (extensible)Edit

Accumulation operators: sum, integral, union, etc.Edit

Main article: Sum-class symbol

These prefix operators accumulate the things they're prefixed to. "Extensible" means they have variable size to accommodate their operands, and their limits can appear below and above the operator.

\int  \int
\oint  \oint
\bigcap  \bigcap
\bigcup  \bigcup

\bigodot  \bigodot
\bigoplus  \bigoplus
\bigotimes  \bigotimes
\bigsqcup  \bigsqcup

\biguplus  \biguplus
\bigvee  \bigvee
\bigwedge  \bigwedge
\coprod  \coprod

\prod  \prod
\sum  \sum

The \smallint command is not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser.

Named operators: sin, cos, etc.Edit

If your favorite operator, say, "foo", isn't listed, then you won't be able to use \foo(x) in your LaTeX equation. But don't fret. You can get the same result with \operatorname{foo}(x). If your made-up operator needs displayed limits, as in \lim or \max, then use \operatorname*{foo}, as in the example in the following table.

\arccos  \arccos
\arcsin  \arcsin
\arctan  \arctan
\arg  \arg
\cos  \cos
\cosh  \cosh
\cot  \cot
\coth  \coth
\csc  \csc
\deg  \deg

\det  \det
\dim  \dim
\exp  \exp
\gcd  \gcd
\hom  \hom
\inf  \inf
\injlim  \injlim
\ker  \ker
\lg  \lg
\lim  \lim

\liminf  \liminf
\limsup  \limsup
\ln  \ln
\log  \log
\max  \max
\min  \min
\Pr  \Pr
\projlim  \projlim
\sec  \sec
\sin  \sin

\sinh  \sinh
\sup  \sup
\tan  \tan
\tanh  \tanh
\varinjlim  \varinjlim
\varprojlim  \varprojlim
\varliminf  \varliminf
\varlimsup  \varlimsup
\operatorname{foo}_0^1  \operatorname{foo}_0^1

The command \operatorname* is not supported by the wikia's LaTeX parser.

Class 2 (Bin) symbols: binary operator ("conjunction")Edit

The binary operator symbols are...

*  *
+  +
-  -
\amalg  \amalg
\ast  \ast
\barwedge  \barwedge
\bigcirc  \bigcirc
\bigtriangledown  \bigtriangledown
\bigtriangleup  \bigtriangleup
\boxdot  \boxdot
\boxminus  \boxminus
\boxplus  \boxplus
\boxtimes  \boxtimes
\bullet  \bullet
\cap  \cap

\Cap  \Cap or \doublecap
\cdot  \cdot
\centerdot  \centerdot
\circ  \circ
\circledast  \circledast
\circledcirc  \circledcirc
\circleddash  \circleddash
\cup  \cup
\Cup  \Cup or \doublecup
\curlyvee  \curlyvee
\curlywedge  \curlywedge
\dagger  \dagger
\ddagger  \ddagger
\diamond  \diamond
\div  \div

\divideontimes  \divideontimes
\dotplus  \dotplus
\doublebarwedge  \doublebarwedge
\gtrdot  \gtrdot
\intercal  \intercal
\leftthreetimes  \leftthreetimes
\lessdot  \lessdot
\ltimes  \ltimes
\mp  \mp
\odot  \odot
\ominus  \ominus
\oplus  \oplus
\oslash  \oslash
\otimes  \otimes
\pm  \pm

\rightthreetimes  \rightthreetimes
\rtimes  \rtimes
\setminus  \setminus
\smallsetminus  \smallsetminus
\sqcap  \sqcap
\sqcup  \sqcup
\star  \star
\times  \times
\triangleleft  \triangleleft
\triangleright  \triangleright
\uplus  \uplus
\vee  \vee or \lor
\veebar  \veebar
\wedge  \wedge or \land
\wr  \wr

Class 3 (Rel) symbols: relation / comparison ("verb")Edit

<, =, >, and variants Edit

 <   <
=  =
 >   >
\approx  \approx
\approxeq  \approxeq
\asymp  \asymp
\backsim  \backsim
\backsimeq  \backsimeq
\bumpeq  \bumpeq
\Bumpeq  \Bumpeq
\circeq  \circeq
\cong  \cong
\curlyeqprec  \curlyeqprec
\curlyeqsucc  \curlyeqsucc
\doteq  \doteq
\doteqdot  \doteqdot or \Doteq
\eqcirc  \eqcirc
\eqsim  \eqsim
\eqslantgtr  \eqslantgtr
\eqslantless  \eqslantless
\equiv  \equiv
\fallingdotseq  \fallingdotseq
\geq  \geq or \ge

\geqq  \geqq
\geqslant  \geqslant
\gg  \gg
\ggg  \ggg or \gggtr
\gnapprox  \gnapprox
\gneq  \gneq
\gneqq  \gneqq
\gnsim  \gnsim
\gtrapprox  \gtrapprox
\gtreqless  \gtreqless
\gtreqqless  \gtreqqless
\gtrless  \gtrless
\gtrsim  \gtrsim
\gvertneqq  \gvertneqq
\leq  \leq or \le
\leqq  \leqq
\leqslant  \leqslant
\lessapprox  \lessapprox
\lesseqgtr  \lesseqgtr
\lesseqqgtr  \lesseqqgtr
\lessgtr  \lessgtr
\lesssim  \lesssim
\ll  \ll

\lll  \lll or \llless
\lnapprox  \lnapprox
\lneq  \lneq
\lneqq  \lneqq
\lnsim  \lnsim
\lvertneqq  \lvertneqq
\ncong  \ncong
\neq  \neq or \ne
\ngeq  \ngeq
\ngeqq  \ngeqq
\ngeqslant  \ngeqslant
\ngtr  \ngtr
\nleq  \nleq
\nleqq  \nleqq
\nleqslant  \nleqslant
\nless  \nless
\nprec  \nprec
\npreceq  \npreceq
\nsim  \nsim
\nsucc  \nsucc
\nsucceq  \nsucceq
\prec  \prec
\precapprox  \precapprox

\preccurlyeq  \preccurlyeq
\preceq  \preceq
\precnapprox  \precnapprox
\precneqq  \precneqq
\precnsim  \precnsim
\precsim  \precsim
\risingdotseq  \risingdotseq
\sim  \sim
\simeq  \simeq
\succ  \succ
\succapprox  \succapprox
\succcurlyeq  \succcurlyeq
\succeq  \succeq
\succnapprox  \succnapprox
\succneqq  \succneqq
\succnsim  \succnsim
\succsim  \succsim
\thickapprox  \thickapprox
\thicksim  \thicksim
\triangleq  \triangleq

ArrowsEdit

Other relation symbolsEdit

\backepsilon  \backepsilon
\because  \because
\between  \between
\blacktriangleleft  \blacktriangleleft
\blacktriangleright  \blacktriangleright
\bowtie  \bowtie
\dashv  \dashv
\frown  \frown
\in  \in
\mid  \mid
\models  \models
\ni  \ni or \owns
\nmid  \nmid
\notin  \notin
\nparallel  \nparallel
\nshortmid  \nshortmid
\nshortparallel  \nshortparallel
\nsubseteq  \nsubseteq

\smallsmile  \smallsmile
\smile  \smile
\sqsubset  \sqsubset
\sqsubseteq  \sqsubseteq
\sqsupset  \sqsupset
\sqsupseteq  \sqsupseteq
\subset  \subset
\Subset  \Subset
\subseteq  \subseteq
\subseteqq  \subseteqq
\subsetneq  \subsetneq
\subsetneqq  \subsetneqq
\supset  \supset
\Supset  \Supset
\supseteq  \supseteq
\supseteqq  \supseteqq
\supsetneq  \supsetneq
\supsetneqq  \supsetneqq

Class 4 (open; left) and class 5 (close; right) symbols (extensible)Edit

Paired left and right symbolsEdit

(\quad )   ( )
[\quad ]   [ ]
\lbrace \quad \rbrace   \lbrace \rbrace
\lVert \quad \rVert   \lVert \rVert

\langle \quad \rangle   \langle \rangle
\lceil \quad \rceil   \lceil \rceil
\lfloor \quad \rfloor   \lfloor \rfloor

The following commands are not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser:

\lvert \rvert \lgroup \rgroup \lmoustache \rmoustache

Nonpairing symbols (extensible)Edit

\vert  \vert or |
\Vert  \Vert or \|
/  /
\backslash  \backslash




The following commands are not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser:

\arrowvert \Arrowvert \bracevert

Vertical arrows (extensible)Edit

\uparrow  \uparrow
\Uparrow  \Uparrow

\downarrow  \downarrow
\Downarrow  \Downarrow

Class 6 (Pun) symbols: postfix / punctuationEdit

The punctuation symbols are

.  .
/  /
|  |
,  ,

;  ;
\colon  \colon
:  :
!  !

?  ?
\dotsb  \dotsb



\ddots  \ddots
\vdots  \vdots

The following commands are not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser:

\dotsc \dotsi \dotsm \dotso

External referencesEdit

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